Polarized lenses were invented in 1936 by Edwin H. Land after the discovery that light waves, which are usually erratic and vibrate in many directions, become aligned in one direction after bouncing off of a surface. In other words, after light hits a flat surface, such as the water or road in front of you, light starts moving in the same direction: horizontal. That horizontal light is what we perceive as glare.

Polarized lenses work by blocking out all of that horizontal light. Kind of like a mattress trying to fit through a doorway. The mattress (light) cannot pass through the doorway (polarized lenses) if you turn the mattress horizontal (glare). However, if you turn the mattress vertically (good light), it will pass through, no problem.

During the manufacturing process, a special chemical is applied to an eyeglass lens to polarize it. The chemical is laminated in a vertical pattern, which reorganizes light. This pattern blocks the light that is horizontal to eliminate glare, which is similar to how a window blind works

In addition to reducing glare, polarized lenses ease eyestrain from long hours in the sun. Should you experience headaches due to light sensitivity, polarized lenses may help you experience fewer occurrences and less intense headaches.

Polarized lenses can also increase visual clarity, contrast, and acuity, making your environment more enjoyable. When you’re able to see better, you may be able to mentally determine what you’re seeing quicker, which can help improve reaction time.


Polarizations Limits

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)—, which are common on cell phone screens, auto dashboards, clocks and other instrument displays—can be difficult to see clearly when wearing polarized lenses. They are especially troubling for pilots who may have trouble reading their instrument panel and viewing objects in the sky, including other planes.

Content source: https://www.goodeyes.com/blog/polarized-lenses-work/

And http://fuse-rx.com/blog/polarized-lenses/